Why think there is a God (4): And the Rest …

The philosopher Immanuel Kant said that there were three types of argument for God’s existence: cosmological, ontological and teleological. Often today those taking a course in religious studies will be presented a cosmological argument, an ontological argument and a teleological argument as those were the arguments for God – just these three.

But it’s not true. Firstly, there are numerous subsets within these three categories. For example, there is the kalam cosmological argument and there is the Leibnizian cosmological argument. But secondly, and more importantly, there are numerous arguments that don’t fit in these categories. And this should not surprise us. If God exists then he is the basis of all reality, the most fundamental thing there is, so the evidence for God is everything – all of reality.

There are complex philosophical arguments from set theory and from concepts (do concepts that no-one has thought of exist?). There are arguments from our mental capacity, such as consciousness and intentionality (how do you explain the mind without denying it is real?) . There are arguments from the consistency of the universe (isn’t it a strange coincidence that universe obeys the laws of logic?). There are arguments against universal scepticism (how do you know that your thoughts are, in any way, related to reality?). There are arguments from the intelligibility and discoverability of the universe (isn’t it useful that the present is like the past?). There are arguments from the transcendent nature of human experience (is music, art, beauty, just about attracting a mate?). There are arguments from our transcendent desire (why do we long for something more?) and arguments from the search of meaning (are our lives just a cosmic fluke?). There are arguments from providence (seeing God at work in your life) and arguments from miracles (some things just seem to require a God). And there are probably many more.

Now the point is not to just throw arguments at you till you’re too weary to object any more. Every argument needs to be judged on its own merits. Sometimes people make bad arguments for the existence of God, or present them in a bad way. There would be no point just stacking up bad arguments. But there are also numerous good arguments and sometimes all it takes is one to change someone’s perspective.

The real point of this essay is that thinking about the existence of God is thinking about reality itself. And the question is, does reality seem ordered, meaningful, purposeful, filled with depth and richness? Or does reality seem chaotic, meaningless, pointless, just an unhappy result of blind chance? If, on balance, you think the first option is more like reality as you experience then you have good reason for thinking there is a God.

And having come to the realisation that there probably is a God then you’re ready to start exploring what that means for you.

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Preceding articles:

Why think there’s a God? (1): Something from Nothing

Why think there is a God? (2) Goldilocks Effect

Why Think There Is a God? (3): Why Is It Wrong?

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  • A Cogent Case for the Existence of God. (yandyleyva.wordpress.com)
    While the Kalam argument does not explicitly argue for the existence of God, it does argue for a first cause to the universe. The argument is made complete when one analyzes the required characteristics of this first cause, but first the premises of the argument have to be engaged.
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    Craig’s gloss highlights that God does not fit as a being who began to exist because he finds his existence logically-prior to time. He is basically saying the we can easily conceive of a timeless being who comes to exist in time, but it is the uncaused cause of time. There is no reason to believe that if x began to exist in time than x must begin to exist as such.
  • Proof And Evidence For God Does Not Exist (honoringreason.wordpress.com)
    Axiological Argument
    God cannot explain away god. There is no evidence.
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    Experiential Argument
    There is no experiment that justifies god you will have to elaborate.
  • Edward Harrison: “Here is the cosmological proof of the existence of God” (lifeondoverbeach.wordpress.com)
    “Here is the cosmological proof of the existence of God – the design argument of Paley – updated and refurbished. The fine tuning of the universe provides prima facie evidence of deistic design. Take your choice: blind chance that requires multitudes of universes or design that requires only one…. Many scientists, when they admit their views, incline toward the teleological or design argument.”
  • Book Review: Palmer’s The Atheist’s Primer (withalliamgod.wordpress.com)
    The Atheist’s Creed (2010), is to bring out “important philosophical arguments to the force, and to provide a selective overview of the extraordinary richness of the atheistic literature, which extends from the time of the Greeks down to our own day.”(p.11)
  • Why the Kalam Cosmological Argument fails, and why it doesn’t matter anyway (freethinkingjew.com)
    essentially the argument amounts to “Everything that begins to exist, including the universe, has a cause, therefore the universe has a cause.”

    The fact is, however, that we do not know that everything that begins to exist has a cause, because we’ve never seen a universe come into existence.  Therefore we have no track record, no basis for assuming that whenever a universe comes into existence (if, in fact, the universe ever did come into existence and wasn’t always there) that it always has a cause.  And so the assumption in Premise 1 that everything (including the universe) that comes into existence has a cause may or may not be true.  Since we don’t know whether Premise 1 is true, we don’t know whether the conclusion is true either.

  • Does God Exist? Debate Summary of William Lane Craig vs. Klemens Kappel (withalliamgod.wordpress.com)
    Kappel admitted that it is not easy to come up with evidence to prove that God doesn’t exist. People don’t believe God exist because of the same reason they don’t believe Thor (Danish god) exist. The reason some believe in God is because they are born in environment that believes in God.(Comment: Genetic Fallacy)

    Kappel’s reasons for not believing in God is that we ought to treat God Hypothesis as an alternative hypothesis to much of what we take for ourselves to know from science and common sense about the would.

  • 5 Types of Apologetics (whybelievethat.wordpress.com)
    There are 5 main types of apologetics, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. No one method is more correct than another, but most people are drawn to a particular style based on the interests God has given them.
  • Aquinas’ Quinque viæ: Regarding the existence of God (thehouseofhorus.com)
    An infinite regress is a series of propositions that require an answer for the previous ones actions. In example: A1 exists because of A2. A2 exists because of A3. A3 exists because of A4 etc. This becomes an infinite loop.
  • Douglas Groothuis’ 752-page Christian apologetics book is now under $22 (winteryknight.wordpress.com)
    Groothuis engages very difficult scientific and philosophical concepts and communicates them in a way that even the beginner will be able to grasp. Though there are many different versions of the cosmological argument, the chapter hones in on the kalam cosmological argument as put forth by William Lane Craig. The kalam argument is superior to other cosmological arguments in that it supposedly secures the theistic doctrine of ex nihilo if the arguments proves successful (note: a minor quibble of this chapter is that Groothuis purports that the Thomistic cosmological argument does not endorse ex nihilo. I believe this to be false). This specific chapter was sensational – however I was left disappointed that no time was given to addressing the cosmological argument posited by Aquinas. In some respects, the Thomistic cosmological argument is the simplest form for people new to apologetics. The Thomistic version does not get into the technical issues of the metaphysics of time and Big Bang cosmology that the kalam version uses, nor does it require knowledge of the principle of sufficient reason that the Leibnizian version necessitates. While the kalam and Leibnizian versions are logical and sound arguments, they may confusing to people new to apologetics.

A New Perspective

More people should see the advantage they get when they can stay at home to spend time with the children. Taking time to teach the Word of God is one of those very important tasks given to us all, men and women. The stay-at-home mother with the right attitude can show the child how a Christian has to behave and how we as human beings can bring the Word of God into action, making the works of God visible to others.

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  • Changing My Perspective (mixwilliams.wordpress.com)
    I think all of us have had “stuff” in our past that has caused us to have self-doubt and not believe God’s promises.   We need to let go of our past, let go of our self-doubts, our disappointments, our baggage and anything else that is causing us not to believe God’s promises, move forward and stop questioning Why!  It’s not where we have been, where we started, but rather how we finish that matters.  It is changing our perspective and running the race with Him, letting go of our ugly pasts and basking in His Word today moving forward!
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    Did you know we were planted or born to display His splendor?   What a verse!  It does not matter if I am having a bad day, it does not matter how I am feeling, it does not matter if life is hurting, that verse says we should be displaying His splendor through it all. We are not to give up and wither when we are in a drought, but rather let our roots of our knowledge in Him draw us closer to Him.
  • Let’s Get Fresh Perspective (supportinggodlywomen.wordpress.com)
    Did you know the key to power is the renewed mind? The definition of a renewed mind is putting the Word of God in mind and acting accordingly.
  • Empowerment Café: Perspective (pinkcandyandstilettos.com)
    “This goes out to some of my favorite mommies…keep pushing you ARE making a difference. I admire your strength and perseverance!!!”  The message was timely, unexpected, sweet and extremely thoughtful.
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    While we are obsessing over the fine details of being a perfect mom, our little ones think that their “good enough” moms are simply perfect.  So moms, know that even in your imperfection, you are making a significant difference in your children’s lives.  As my girlfriend stated, we deserve to have those reminders every now and again.

It's All Grace

Imagine going to a job each morning where you can set your own schedule. You arrive when you want, take breaks whenever you want, and leave for an extended lunch hour without anyone breathing down your neck. Answering your phone calls and emails is regulated to a minimum each day, and the work responsibilities and goals you have are varied. There is no dress code or security passes to wear around your neck, and no one cares if you eat at your desk or play your favorite radio station. Your boss is off-site, and you can manage your workload to best suit your needs. Your work is rewarding and exciting, and you usually see immediate results from your efforts. Wouldn’t we all love to have a job that fits this description? As a homeschooling parent, you do!

Many homeschooling parents get caught up in the fact that they never receive…

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“Before” and “after” the Big Bang

“Before” the Big Bang

Big Bang!!!

Big Bang!!! (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

“Before” the Big Bang there was neither space nor time say many, but how did the clash of sounds, the Big Bang came into existence? When we talk about a “Before” than we assume that there is also a “After”. Both “before” and “after” are time concepts. If time began with the Big Bang, it’s incoherent to speak of anything “before” it. The Big Bang is a boundary, just as the edge of our curved space-time is a boundary, and it’s equally incoherent to speak of anything “beyond.”

In case the Big Bang happened it was an “event”. Something, which is considered by several to have taken course in the past. If it happened once, it’s entirely reasonable to suppose it’s happened over and over. One possibility is an oscillating universe – its expansion reverses and ends in a “big crunch” which rebounds in a fresh big bang. Another is the multiverse concept, that big bangs are natural events in any universe; and our own may be creating offspring universes, for example, out of the “singularities” at the hearts of black holes, where the laws of physics go haywire.

The Originator of everything let His people know that they would never be able to get to know all that there is in the whole universe, because it would be like giving and specifying every grain of sand.

Artefacts of structure

When we look at the things and analyse them we can break all to be stuff to be just artefacts of structure, dust and water. We made in the image of God also consist mainly of water and dust. For some that too makes somewhat more plausible a Universe bursting from “nothing.” But then they forget that nothingness is still constructed from unseen very tiny microscopic elements. This world is but a small section of real existence

A popular idiom says “nature abhors a vacuum”. When you place existence in the vacuum of the universe, all neutrons and molecules found their place to become different things we give all sorts of names.

Sound, Void vain man and his stories

Vain man is void of understanding, and does not have an eye for the Void which was at the beginning. From that void resounded A Voice. The Sound of that Voice brought forth The Word that goes forth out of the Mouth of the Originator who makes clear that it shall not return to Him void. Whatever might happen, this Divine Creator shall accomplish that which pleases Him, and it shall prosper in the thing whereto He, the Only One God sends it. (Isaiah 55:11)

There are many and sometimes seemingly opposing versions of the origin of Creation. This is quite understandable given the circumstances and age of these accounts. Some of these stories were mediated knowledge received from pure sources but, in their rendering interwoven with folklores and legends of kingdoms, empires, cultures, races, etc. Even the most reliable accounts have not been able to separate the origin of Creation from the metamorphosis of the earth and man. Spiritual events are recorded as if they occurred on earth and the whole processes of spiritual developments down to the evolution of the material world (earth) and earthman which spanned millions of years are captured in few sentences or, said to have happened within one sun rise and sun down.

Despite the shortcomings in these stories, one can still glean grains of Truth. Firstly, Creation had a definite beginning, secondly, before the advent of Creation, the world was a formless, pitch-dark nebula or liquid ether and thirdly, Creation came into existence with the introduction of Light or, as one scripture puts it, with the words of God!

Opposing versions

Lerner's 1991 book, The Big Bang Never Happened

Lerner’s 1991 book, The Big Bang Never Happened (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

There are many and sometimes seemingly opposing versions of the origin of Creation. This is quite understandable given the circumstances and age of these accounts. Some of these stories were mediated knowledge received from pure sources but, in their rendering interwoven with folklores and legends of kingdoms, empires, cultures, races, etc. Even the most reliable accounts have not been able to separate the origin of Creation from the metamorphosis of the earth and man. Spiritual events are recorded as if they occurred on earth and the whole processes of spiritual developments down to the evolution of the material world (earth) and earthman which spanned millions of years are captured in few sentences or, said to have happened within one sun rise and sun down.

Light

Despite the shortcomings in these stories, one can still glean grains of Truth. Firstly, Creation had a definite beginning, secondly, before the advent of Creation, the world was a formless, pitch-dark nebula or liquid ether and thirdly, Creation came into existence with the introduction of Light or, as one scripture puts it, with the words of God!

“And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.” (Genesis 1:3 AV)

As such by the Word of the Most High Creator were the heavens made, and all the host of them by the Breath of His Mouth. He only had to Speak and it came into being. He commanded, and it stood fast, by his order it was fixed for ever or until the time it would change again under His command

“By the word of Jehovah were the heavens made, And all the host of them by the breath of his mouth.” (Psalms 33:6 ASV)

“For he spake, and it was done; He commanded, and it stood fast.” (Psalms 33:9 ASV)

By Act of Will of Supreme Source of life

Through the infinite Wisdom of the Almighty the creation took a perfect process. By an Act of the Will of God embodied in the holy command “Let There be…” And there it came into being and there was.

From eternity, the origin and Source of life is enthroned at unapproachable distances above all conscious existence. The Essence of the origin and source of life is the Ultimate Being. Without the Creator God, nothing is possible. Jehovah God is The Supreme Source of life and power in the Universe.

What often makes us not to understand the coming into being is that our perception wants to see everything straight ahead like we know it. This makes that we encounter creationists in this world who do not want to believe the world is a continuous evolving system, in which we are only a small part. Many human beings want to place them above the universe, thinking that they are more important than stars, fauna and flora. They made themselves to a superior race and by doing so they at the same time minimise the creation of the Most High Maker.

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Preceding article: Blackness, nothingness, something, void

Next: Nothingness

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Read also:

  1. Does He exists?
  2. How are we sure God exists?
  3. The Word being a quality or aspect of God Himself
  4. The Bible: God’s Word or pious myth?
  5. God of gods
  6. Only one God
  7. God is One
  8. Hashem השם, Hebrew for “the Name”
  9. Use of /Gebruik van Jehovah or/of Yahweh in Bible Translations/Bijbel vertalingen
  10. Cosmos creator and human destiny
  11. Creator and Blogger God 1 Emptiness and mouvement
  12. Creator and Blogger God 3 Lesson and solution
  13. A viewpoint on creation
  14. The Origin of Life on Earth: Creation or Evolution?
  15. Creation of the earth out of something
  16. The World framed by the Word of God
  17. Is it “Wrong” to Believe that the Earth is a Sphere?
  18. Tu B’Shvat, the holiday of the trees
  19. Without God no purpose, no goal, no hope
  20. Man made life
  21. Men as God
  22. The professor, God, Faith and the student
  23. The manager and Word of God
  24. God has visited His people

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  • What Caused the Big Bang? A Master Mason and Knight Templar Offers a Unique New Approach to Multiverse Cosmology (prweb.com)
    What caused the Big Bang?In his new book, Jeffrey Augustine boldly answers this question. In doing so, he offers powerful new insights into the nature of Consciousness and Multiverse Cosmology.

    “In the pages of “What Caused the Big Bang?, I introduce a striking new cosmology that transcends the models of Divine Creation and a spontaneous Big Bang that had no cause.”
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    A central premise in Jeffrey Augustine’s work is that Infinity is a monolithic Unity. It is One. Augustine’s distinctive cosmology states that all universes are sub-infinite and are “sourced” by Infinity.

    Once sourced, Infinity launches these sub-infinite universes into the Multiverse in a “high-energy faster than light transfer process” that Augustine calls “Disunification.”

    Augustine says of this process, “Disunification is the mechanism whereby Infinity sources and then disunifies universes. Disunification is how Infinity populates the sub-infinite Multiverse. All of these sub-infinite universes can have different laws, thus allowing Infinity to realize every possible history and outcome as it evolves itself.”

  • Quran and Big Bang Theory (ministry786.wordpress.com)
    The overall Big Bang theory states that the universe started from an incredibly dense
    singularity that exploded. All matter, light and energy came from that explosion.
    The size of the universe increases as everything expands from this explosion.
    The theory is that of an expanding universe, meaning that the universe
    as a whole is expanding, instead of a static universe meaning
    that matter is expanding into a statically sized space.
  • Goodbye Big Bang, Hello Black Hole? A New Theory Of The Universe’s Creation (universetoday.com)
    This artist’s impression shows the surroundings of the supermassive black hole at the heart of the active galaxy NGC 3783 in the southern constellation of Centaurus (The Centaur). New observations using the Very Large Telescope Interferometer at ESO’s Paranal Observatory in Chile have revealed not only the torus of hot dust around the black hole but also a wind of cool material in the polar regions. Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser

    This artist’s impression shows the surroundings of the supermassive black hole at the heart of the active galaxy NGC 3783 in the southern constellation of Centaurus (The Centaur). New observations using the Very Large Telescope Interferometer at ESO’s Paranal Observatory in Chile have revealed not only the torus of hot dust around the black hole but also a wind of cool material in the polar regions. Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser

    Could the famed “Big Bang” theory need a revision? A group of theoretical physicists suppose the birth of the universe could have happened after a four-dimensional star collapsed into a black hole and ejected debris.
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    Most cosmologists say the universe must have been expanding faster than the speed of light for this to happen, but Ashford says even that theory has problems: “The Big Bang was so chaotic, it’s not clear there would have been even a small homogenous patch for inflation to start working on.”
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    it is clear from observations that the universe is expanding (and indeed is getting faster as it expands, possibly due to the mysterious dark energy). The new theory says that the expansion comes from this 3-D brane’s growth. But there  is at least one limitation.

  • Something you should know – Vedic Principles of Creation, A The Big Bang Theory (voyagegroupin.wordpress.com)
    The scientific theory of creation is that there was a big bang, which created the material elements (earth, water, gases, chemicals etc..). These material elements then somehow combined together and created the various planets and one species of living beings. These living beings then somehow changed their bodies and became another species, and so on. In this way the millions of species of living beings we know of were created. This is termed as evolution, thus one body changes into another and so on.
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    During the lifetime of each Universe, there are partial creations and annihilations. At the beginning of each day of Brahma there is creation and at the end of each day there is partial annihilation. One day of Brahma is 4.32 Billion years; the night is also of the same duration. We are currently half way through the current day of Brahma, thus we have existed for approximately 2.16 Billions years in the current small cycle.
  • Intelligent Design Should be Taught in Schools (themarshfieldtimes.com)
    It is annual practice in science classes to discuss origin theory. Whether it be evolution or Big Bang, it is studied and discussed. It is wrong that other theories are not brought up in in-class discussions, more specifically, creationism or intelligent design (ID).Evolutionists say all life came from one species of single-celled organisms, the Big Bang theory states that the universe came into existence as a result of a monstrous explosion in space and creationists believe the world as we know it was created by a higher power or deity.
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    It takes an incredible amount of faith to believe a random explosion in the cosmos can result in a complex, diverse ecosystem, or that every living thing evolved from a single-cell organism, but for many it is considered absurd to have faith in a creator who designed the universe. Look at a building, a car, a television; all of them were put together by someone or something. Everything we see in this world had to have a builder. It is common sense. Houses do not explode into existence. Why then, would Earth?
  • big bang theory expiry date!? how much does the “horizon problem” undermine “big bang cosmology”? – 04min (societystacktrace.wordpress.com)
    Did you know the “Big Bang” has some scientifically recognized problems in terms of things that don’t fit observed phenomena & actual measurements?
  • Evolution vs Creation: How the world came into existence? (unalototukia.wordpress.com)
    Since the 1900’s, multiple research on the universe has developed into a surprising theory that the world came into existence by a big bang that had occurred 10 to 20 Billion years ago.
    Scientists have also discovered an interesting fact about the relationship between humans and the great apes. However, creationists proclaim the universe to be youthful as there are multiple natural phenomenon which is conflicts with the scientific theory of the world being billions of years old. Creationists also believe that humans are made by God as both theories are referenced in the bible. The essay will discuss scientific theory and also religious beliefs on how the world came to be. With supporting evidence both theories will be questioned on accuracy to see which theory is factual and which is false.
  • Claim: “Qur’an mentions the big bang … so it must be of divine origin” (skeptical-science.com)
    A rather popular pattern is to take some modern scientific fact and claim that an ancient holy text also describes this recently discovered knowledge, hence the ancient holy text must have been written by God / Allah or whatever god concept of choice is being promoted. Almost all beliefs do stuff like this, so it should come as no surprise to discover the big ones, both Christianity and also Islam do exactly this.
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    The Quranic earth is wholly and consistently a flat earth with seven heavens around it, and that is wholly consistent with the prevailing creation myths that dominated in that region at that time, so the big bang claim is also very much at odds with that reality.
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    Yusuf Ali: Do not the Unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of creation), before we clove them asunder? We made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe? And We have set on the earth mountains standing firm, lest it should shake with them, and We have made therein broad highways (between mountains) for them to pass through: that they may receive Guidance. And We have made the heavens as a canopy well guarded: yet do they turn away from the Signs which these things (point to)!Pickthal: Have not those who disbelieve known that the heavens and the earth were of one piece, then We parted them, and we made every living thing of water? Will they not then believe? And We have placed in the earth firm hills lest it quake with them, and We have placed therein ravines as roads that haply they may find their way. And we have made the sky a roof withheld (from them). Yet they turn away from its portents.

    Shakir: Do not those who disbelieve see that the heavens and the earth were closed up, but We have opened them; and We have made of water everything living, will they not then believe? And We have made great mountains in the earth lest it might be convulsed with them, and We have made in it wide ways that they may follow a right direction. And We have made the heaven a guarded canopy and (yet) they turn aside from its signs.

    Once again you can see that what we have here is an ancient creation myth that clearly describes the creation of the Earth and the heavens above it, and does not it any way describe the big bang as we understand it. Notice how in context the heaven above is just a canopy around the earth and so clearly we not only have a flat earth, but an earth that is the centre of everything.

  • God is One and the Same to All (shivshankardaily.wordpress.com)
    God is immanent in the Universe. He is both the Creator and at the same time within all Creation. In every atom, in every living being He alone is present. Gross and subtle, pure and mixed, simple and complex, in the end that there is no place where God is not. From the lowly worm to the infinite Universe He spreads. All is but one existence – One principle manifesting itself as this tremendous variety of Creation.
  • A toolbox to simulate the big bang and beyond (phys.org)
    The universe is a vast and mysterious place, but thanks to high-performance computing technology scientists around the world are beginning to understand it better. They are using supercomputers to simulate how the Big Bang generated the seeds that led to the formation of galaxies such as the Milky Way.A new project involving DOE’s Argonne Lab, Fermilab and Berkeley Lab will allow scientists to study this vastness in greater detail with a new cosmological simulation analysis toolbox.